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Maryam Kheirandish, Ghazaleh Hosseinvand, Khadijeh Pouraziz & Somayeh Chegini
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Reyhandokht Bisadi,Zeinab Gholami,Yegane Rezakhani
|'Jonathan Swift (1667-1745) '- pseudonyms: Isaac Bickerstaff, A Dissenter, A Person of Qauality, A Person of Honour, M.B. Drapier, T.R.D.J.S.D.O.P.I.I. (The Reverend Doctor Jonathan Switft, Dean of Partick's in Ireland)|
Swift studied at Kilkenny Grammar School (1674-82), Trinity College in Dublin (1682-89), receiving his B.A. in 1686 and M.A. in 1692. At school Swift was not a very good good student and his teachers noted his headstrong behavior. When the anti-Catholic Revolution of the year 1688 aroused reaction in Ireland, Swift moved to England to the household of Sir William Temple at Moor Park, Surrey - Lady Temple was a relative of Swift's mother. He worked there as a secretary (1689-95, 1696-99), but did not like his position as a servant in the household.
In 1695 Swift was ordained in the Church of Ireland (Anglican), Dublin. While in staying in Moor Park, Swift also was the teacher of a young girl, Esther Johnson, whom he called Stella. When she grew up she become an important person in his life. Stella moved to Ireland to live near him and followed him on his travels to London. Their relationship was a constant source of gossips. According to some speculations, they were married in 1716. Stella died in 1728 and Swift kept a lock of her hair among his papers for the rest of his life. "As the common forms of good manners were intended for regulating the conduct of those who have weak understandings; so they have been corrupted by the persons for whose use they were contrived. For these people have fallen into a needless and endless way of multiplying ceremonies, which have been extremely troublesome to those who practice them, and insupportable to everyone else: insomuch that wise men are often more uneasy at the over civility of these refiners, than they could possibly be in the conversations of peasants or mechanics." (from 'A Treatise on Good Manners and Good Breeding', 1754) After William Temple's death in 1699, Swift returned to Ireland. He made several trips to London and gained fame with his essays. Throughout the reign of Queen Anne (1702-14), Swift was one of the central characters in the literary and political life of London. From 1695 to 1696 Swift was the vicar of Kilroot. There he met Jane Wairing, with whom he had an affair. For Swift's disappointment, she did not consider him a suitable marriage partner. Between the years 1707 and 1709 Swift was an emissary for the Irish clergy in London. Swift contributed to the 'Bickerstaff Papers' and to the Tattler in 1708-09. He was a cofounder of the Scriblerus Club, which included such member as Pope, Gay, Congreve, and Robert Harley, 1st Earl of Oxford.
In 1710 Swift tried to open a political career among Whigs but changed his party and took over the Tory journal The Examiner. With the accession of George I, the Tories lost political power. Swift withdrew to Ireland. Hester Vanhomrigh, whom Swift had met in 1708, and whom he had tutored, followed him to Ireland after her mother had died. She was 22 years younger than Swift, who nicknamed her Vanessa. In the poem 'Cadenus and Vanessa' from 1713 Swift wrote about the affair: "Each girl, when pleased with what is taught, / Will have the teacher in her thought." In 1723 Swift broke off the relationship; she never recovered form his rejection.
From 1713 to 1742 Swift was the dean of St. Patrick's Cathedral. It is thought that Swift suffered from Ménière's disease or Alzheimer's disease. Many considered him insane - however, from the beginning of his twentieth year he had suffered from deafness. Swift had predicted his mental decay when he was about 50 and had remarked to the poet Edward Young when they were gazing at the withered crown of a tree: "I shall be like that tree, I shall die from the top."
Jonathan Swift died in Dublin on October 19, 1745. He left behind a great mass of poetry and prose, chiefly in the form of pamphlets. William Makepeace Thackeray once said of the author: "So great a man he seems to me, that thinking of him is like thinking of an empire falling."
Swift's religious writing is little read today. His most famous works include THE BATTLE OF THE BOOKS (1697), exploring the merits of the ancients and the moderns in literature. The author himself pretends to be an objective chronicler of events, but his sympathies are more on the side of the ancients. A TALE OF A TUB (1704) was a religious satire. Swift once stated that "satire is a sort of glass, wherein beholders do generally discover everybody's face but their own." At its core the tale a simple narrative of a father who has triplets, Martin, Peter and Jack; they refer to different churches. The father is of course God. Upon his death, he leaves them each a coat which will grow with them. Swift finished the tale in 1697, but hesitated to publish it. Although the work eventually appeared anonymously, it established Swift's reputation.
In ARGUMENTS AGAINST ABOLISHING CHRISTIANITY (1708) the narrator argues for the preservation of the Christian religion as a social necessity. When an ignorant cobbler named John Partridge published an almanac of astrological predictions, Swift parodied it in PREDICTION FOR THE ENSUING YEAR BY ISAAC BICKERSTAFF. He foretold the death of John Partridge on March, 1708, and affirmed on that day his prediction. Partridge protested that he was alive but Swift proved in his 'Vindication' that he was dead. DRAPIER'S LETTERS (1724) was against the monopoly granted by the English government to William Wood to provide the Irish with copper coinage. In A MODEST PROPOSAL (1729) the narrator recommends with grotesque logic, that Irish poverty can be solved by the breeding up their infants as food for the rich. When the actor Peter O'Toole read it - for some reason - in the reopening of the Gaiety Theatre in Dublin in 1984, several members from the audience departed. Swift has been labelled as a hater of mankind. "Principally I hate and detest that animal called man; although I heartily love John, Peter, Thomas, and so forth, " Swift wrote in a letter to Alexander Pope. However, Swift defended ordinary Irish people against England's economic oppression and he was known as a prankster. He also had a philanthropical side. As a churchman Swift had spent a third of his earnings on charities and he saved another third each year to found St. Patrick's Hospital for Imbeciles in 1757. Gulliver's Travels (1726) - Defoe's novel about Robinson Crusoe had appeared in 1719 and in the same vein Swift makes Lemuel Gulliver, a surgeon and a sea captain, recount his adventures. In part one, Gulliver is wrecked on an island where human beings are six inches tall. The Lilliputians have wars, and conduct clearly laughable with their self-importance and vanities - these human follies only reduced into a miniature scale. Gulliver's second voyage takes him to Brobdingnag. "I cannot but conclude that the bulk of your natives to be the most pernicious race of little odious vermin that nature ever suffered to crawl upon the surface of the earth." He meets giants who are practical but do not understand abstractions. In the third voyage contemporary scientist are held up for ridicule: science is shown to be futile unless it is applicable to human betterment. Gulliver then travels to the flying island of Laputa and the nearby continent and capital of Lagado. There he meets pedants obsessed with their own special field and utterly ignorant of the rest of the life. On the island of Glubbdubdrib Gulliver encounters a community of sorcerers who can summon the spirits of the dead, allowing him to converse with Alexander, Julius Caesar, Aristotle and others. He meets Struldbrughs, who are immortal and, as a result, utterly miserable and become senile in their 80s. In the fourth part Gulliver visits the land of Houyhnhnms, where horses are intelligent but human beings are not. The horses are served with degenerate creatures called Yahoos, demonstrating that human race would destroy itself without divine aid. Swift wrote the book with a serious purpose - "to mend the world". Gulliver's Travels was a topical social satire, a work of propaganda, in which Swift wanted to show the consequences of humanity's refusal to be reasonable. It is still widely read all over the world - especially the two first books are children's favorites - and open to many interpretations. But when Defoe was an optimist, Swift's in his bitter pessimism makes Gulliver return home, preferring the company of horses to that of his family. - OTHER TRAVELLER'S TALES: Homer's Odyssey, Marco Polo's Travels, Daniel Defoe's Robinson Crusoe, adventures of Baron Münchhausen by Rudolf Eric Raspe (1737-1794), etc.
Jonathan Swift Genre and mode (style) Jonathan Swift, the Anglo-Irish satirist, essayist, political pamphleteer, poet and cleric, is probably the foremost prose satirist in the English language, and is less well known (or let’s say studied) for his poetry. He is known for being a master of two styles of satire: the Horatian and Juvenalian styles. Satire Satire (from the Latin satura, meaning "dish of mixed fruits"): applied to any work of literature or art whose objective is ridicule. The Artistic Form in which human or individual vices, folly, abuses, or shortcomings are held up to censure by means of ridicule, derision, burlesque, irony, or other methods, sometimes with an intent to bring about improvement. What is the Horatian Satire? To Horace (Quintus Horatius Flaccus 65-8BCE, the Roman poet), the satirist is an urbane man of the world who sees folly everywhere but is moved to gentle laughter rather than to rage. Horatian satire, often contrasted with the bitterness of Juvenalian satire, is a more indulgent, tolerant treatment of human inconsistencies and follies, ironically amused rather than outraged. What is the Juvenalian satire? Juvenalian satire, written in the manner of the Roman poet Juvenal (Decimus Junius Juvenalis, c. 65 AD-c.135), is the kind of satire that bitterly condemns human vice and folly. In fact, Juvenal's satirist is an upright man who is horrified and angered by corruption. In contrast with the Horation satire, Juvenalian is harsher, more pointed, and often attacks particular people with an invective attack.
Swift and “The Style”: "Proper words in proper places." Other writers agree: that wise guy of English prose, Jonathan Swift, knew a thing or two about good style:
• Swift's style is, in its line, perfect; the manner is a complete expression of the matter, the terms appropriate, and the artifice concealed. It is simplicity in the true sense of the word.
(Samuel Coleridge, "Lecture on Style," 1818) • Swift, the greatest writer of English prose, and the greatest man who has ever written great English prose.
(T.S. Eliot, The Varieties of Metaphysical Poetry, 1926)
So when the author of Gulliver's Travels and "A Modest Proposal" offers some free advice on writing, we probably ought to pay attention. Swift’s famous definition of style as:
"Proper words in proper places." Short and sweet. But then, we might ask, who's to say what's "proper"? And just what does Swift's maxim really mean?
Swift's cryptic definition of style appears in the essay "Letter to a Young Gentleman Lately Entered Into Holy Orders" (1721). There he identifies clarity, directness, and freshness of expression as the chief qualities of a "proper" style: “And truly, as they say a man is known by his company, so it should seem that a man's company may be known by his means of expressing himself, either in public assemblies or private conversations.
It would be endless to run over the several defects of style among us.” … “Two things I will just warn you against: the first is, the frequency of flat unnecessary epithets; and the other is, the folly of using old threadbare phrases, which will often make you go out of your way to find and apply them, are nauseous to rational hearers, and will seldom express your meaning as well as your own natural words. …When a man's thoughts are clear, the properest words will generally offer themselves first, and his own judgment will direct him in what order to place them so as they may be best understood. Where men err against this method, it is usually on purpose, and to show their learning, their oratory, their politeness, or their knowledge of the world. In short, that simplicity without which no human performance can arrive to any great perfection is nowhere more eminently useful than in this. Always think of your audience, Swift advises, and don't baffle them with "obscure terms" and "hard words."
Sound advice, right? But keeping it simple--putting "proper words in proper places"--is a lot harder than it sounds. As Sir Walter Scott once said, "Swift's style seems so simple that one would think any child might write as he does, and yet if we try we find to our despair that it is impossible" (quoted in The Cambridge History of English and American Literature). '
Somayeh Fathali, Marzieh Lalehdashti, Mahsa Arianpouya, Manijheh Darayi, Mahbubeh Taghavi.
Zeinab Amiri-Tanaz Jhani-BaharehAdabkhah